The incredible media story in 5 minutes!

Trace more than 5.000 years of media history in less than 5 minutes? ⏰ It's possible, thanks to this absolutely not exhaustive summary of Jacques Attali's work " Media Stories: From Smoke Signals to Networks social, and much later. " The team We Are COM hopes that its little cheat sheets will make you want to go further in this media retrospective, which also tells us a lot about the future of communicators. 🤓 Indeed, as said so well Jacques Attali : “The future cannot be glimpsed and apprehended only by looking at the laws of the past. » Want even more? Immerse yourself or immerse yourself in this synthesis of an unprecedented exchange between the famous author and the Club We Are COM !

📖 Once upon a time ...

The history of the media begins before Homo Sapiens, with the smoke signals and the cries, which already cross Gaul at the speed of the bird. But it is above all 3 great inventions which appeared simultaneously, in -3300 in Mesopotamia, which will upset information methods: the domestication of the horse, the invention of the wheel and the invention of writing. The first postal systems were then put in place. And these are also the beginnings of public display. We also note that information does not circulate only around the leaders: certain peoples like the Hebrews testify to a desire to transmit to their peers.  

 📦 Information becomes commodity

the 1erthe 14rdcentury, it is “the time of the messengers”. Some news takes barely 3 days to travel 1.000 kilometers. The mails of the popes use the networks of trading companies. And to designate the news, we use the word "new", which will later give the word "news". It was at this time that the warning, the ancestors of newspapers, are emerging. Merchants then create private postal networks and the information itself becomes a commodity. It is also the beginning of the first manipulations. Jacques Attali relates, for example, that a letter from a certain Brother Jean describing a fantastic kingdom circulated in Europe to stimulate the crusades.

💥 The BOOM of printing

During the following two centuries, the postal systems developed and it was above all the birth of printing, with Gutenberg's Bible, in 1452. The 300.000 copies of Luther's 30 writings even generate Copyright, bestseller obliges! In Venice, we see the " novelanti », The first journalists (which are distinguished from the merchants), then lhis first newsletter in London and first ducks and libels in France, the ducks reporting imaginary facts and the libels of the real facts. 

📰 Newspaper days ...

It's at 17rdcentury that journaux make their appearance fully, in particular by taking up the news of warning. We can already see advertisements for booksellers, universities, notably in the Leyden Gazette. In France, censorship does not allow the press to develop. An interesting anecdote taken from Media stories : Téophraste Renaudot, appointed commissioner for the poor is financed by Richelieu to create his own printing press and write a Gazette. He thus becomes a real propagandist of the power in place and obtains the exclusivity for the publication of information on France and… on the world! 

Just before the revolutions, we see the emergence of a real journalism, encouraged by the freedom of expression in the United Provinces in particular. Some Dutch journalists even manage to live on a free pen. In London, the press is developing little by little, thanks to advertising, announcements, new formats such as magazines or other less taxed formats such as broadsheet. The Female Spectator being for example the first periodical created by a woman in 1744.

In France the censorship is such that Rousseau will write in 1755 that a newspaper is "ephemeral work, without merit and without utility, the reading of which, neglected and despised by the literate people only serves to give to women and to the fools of vanity without education ”. 

... but also censorship 🤐

In the United States, everything that is printed is taxed, and that is by the rebellion against the stamp act that the battle for the Independence of the United States of America begins. Virginia is indeed the first state to proclaim freedom of the press. In 1784, the Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser was THE first follow-up of the United States largely funded by advertising. At the beginning of 19rd, Uncle Sam's country has no less than 230 newspapers! In Paris, the revolutionaries create newspapers, but the freedom of the press does not last more than 2 years. Shortly after, we saw the appearance of a new major invention: that of the telegraph. 

🚂 The dissemination of information is simplified

Soon after, the locomotive and rotary presses were invented: two means of speeding up the production and dissemination of information. That's when the first news agencies are created. Havas first founded a translation agency which then became a “Bureau des Nouvelles” in 1838. Charles-Louis Havas obtains priority access to state news and then asks newspapers to pay for it in white pages, which he markets toadvertisers. We note that newspaper sales outlets have been set up near stations by the publisher Hachette.

In addition, in the United States, Lincoln creates the first social room to communicate by telegraph with his generals. The weight of the images is such that Lincoln will say of a photographer who produced his portrait widely distributed during the election campaign: " Brady made me President of the United States ". In France, newspapers are strengthening the publication of advertisements, soap operas and even offer gifts to their subscribers!

💰 The industrial era and the press empires

At the end of 19rdcentury, many inventions will revolutionize our media consumption: the telephone, the phonograph, the first newsreel and the first fictional film, the belinograph (the ancestor of the fax machine). In the USA, advertising dictates content: this is the birth of press empires. In Philadelphia, the first company was created to write and sell advertising spaces in the newspapers. We see appearing courses of marketing, psychology, sociology and we theorize the schemas of communication theories. The objective of the media is no longer to inform but to attract readers, with a view to profit. While in France, the press is more inclined towards questionable practices. She accepts the blackmail and sells her advertisements to those who want to silence certain news. In short, the bosses of the French press propose to self-censor against remuneration.

💨 The rush for advertising

Between 1919 and 1945, we see newsmagazines appear in the United States: it is the beginning of market research, a word coined by Nielsen himself. In France: the search for advertising leads to the multiplication of sections (books, sport, fashion, cinema, etc.) but it represents less than 20% of income. The West is marked by the development of radio, in particular thanks to advertising in the form of sponsoring of broadcasts or commercials. 

📺 Democratization of information and advertising business

Starting with 1945, the press is declining, radio is thriving and television is taking off. McLuhan popularizes the word “media”. Radio broadcasts are adapted for television ("Heard it now" becomes "See it now"). The Kennedy assassination goes on and on until thirsty. Nixon resigns because of Watergate's revelations on CBS shows. In short, television has become a real mass media. In 1972: we saw the appearance of the video recorder - ancestor of replay - and the reality show live.

The 80s are marked by the birth of news channels like CNN. And great novelty with MTV: we are no longer aimed only at Americans but now the whole world! TV channels can be international in scope, not national. Measuresaudience then gain momentum and advertising becomes more professional. And of course, we are witnessing the birth ofInternet with e-commerce, messaging services, games, auctions, The legal basis for the processing is our legitimate interest to promote our products and services., search engine, online advertising, etc. 

📲 Media 2.0

The 2000s were a mad race for attention: the media wanted to capture the attention of their audiences. They are cautious about “new information technologies” (NTIC), for fear of creating their own competition. The last decade has been marked by Social networks and mobile internet. Some striking figures to conclude this epic which is far from over: 

  • > In 2020, digital advertising represents 50% of the advertising market in France and is about to represent the majority of advertising investments 
  • > Google controls nearly half of global ad spending in 2020
  • > Fake news travels 6 times faster than real ones on Twitter
  • > On Facebook and Twitter, at least 15% of accounts are linked to robots
  • > The average time spent reading an article online is 15 seconds, watching a video 10 sec
  • > 43% of those who get information on social networks do so via Facebook, Twitter having become the world's leading news agency

How do you think the next decade will be ??? ????

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